Freshwater swamp forests, or flooded forests, are forests which are inundated with freshwater, either permanently or seasonally.
Freshwater swamp forests are found in a range of climate zones, from boreal through temperate and subtropical to tropical.
They normally occur along the lower reaches of rivers and around freshwater lakes.
Specifically, varzea refers to whitewater-inundated forest, and igapo to blackwater-inundated forest.
Peat swamp forests are swamp forests where waterlogged soils prevent woody debris from fully decomposing, which over time creates a thick layer of acidic peat.